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Kielbasa, kołbasa, kobasa, kovbasa, kobasa, kobasi, and kubasa are common North American anglicizations for a type of Eastern European sausage. Synonyms include Polish sausage, Ukrainian sausage, etc. In English, these words refer to a particular genre of sausage, common to all Eastern European countries but with substantial regional variations. In the Slavic languages, these are the generic words for all types of sausage, local or foreign.
Etymology and usageEdit
The terms entered English simultaneously from different sources, which accounts for the different spellings. Usage varies between cultural groups, but overall there is a distinction between American and Canadian usage.
In the United States, the form kiełbasa is more often used and comes from the Polish kiełbasa "sausage". In New Jersey, Pennsylvania and most areas of Greater New York City, a derivative of the Polish word is used, pronounced ke-bah-see or keu-bah-sah.
In addition to kiebasa, Canadians also use the word kubasa, a corruption of the Ukrainian kovbasa (ковбаса), and Albertans even abbreviate it as kubie to refer to the sausage eaten on a hot dog bun.
Varieties and region varionsEdit
Sausage is a staple of Polish cuisine and comes in dozens of varieties, smoked or fresh, made with pork, beef, turkey, horse, lamb, veal, or bison, with every region having its own speciality. Of these, the Kiełbasa Lisiecka, produced in Małopolskie, has, since late 2010, PGI protection. There are official Polish government guides and classifications of sausages based on size, meat, ready-to-eat or uncooked varieties.
Originally made at home in rural areas, there are a wide variety of recipes for kielbasa preparation at home and for holidays. Kielbasa is also one the most traditional foods served at Polish weddings. Popular varieties include:
- kabanosy, a thin, air-dried sausage flavoured with caraway seed, originally made of pork
- "kiełbasa wędzona", polish smoked sausage, used often in soups.
- krakowska, a thick, straight sausage hot-smoked with pepper and garlic; its name comes from Kraków
- wiejska ([ˈvʲejska]), a large U-shaped pork and veal sausage with marjoram and garlic; its name means "rural" or (an adjectival use of) "country", or (adjectival use of) "village".
- weselna, "wedding" sausage, medium thick, u-shaped smoked sausage; often eaten during parties, but not exclusively
The most popular kiełbasa is also called "Polska kiełbasa" (for "Polish Sausage") or "Kiełbasa Starowiejska" known as "Old Country Style Sausage". This one comes closest to what is generally known in America as "kiełbasa" (a Polish sausage). Nowadays, many major meat packers across America offer a product called "kiełbasa," usually somewhat different from the original.
In Poland, kiełbasa is often served garnished with fried onions, and – in the form of cut pieces – smoked kiełbasa can be served cold, hot, boiled, baked or grilled. It can be cooked in soups such as żurek (sour rye soup), kapuśniak (cabbage soup), or grochówka (pea soup), baked or cooked with sauerkraut, or added to bean dishes, stews (notably bigos, Polish national dish), and casseroles. Kiełbasa is also very popular served cold as coldcuts on a platter, usually for an appetizer at traditional Polish parties.
A less widely available variety of kiełbasa is the White Fresh (biała), which is sold uncooked and unsmoked, then usually prepared by boiling, frying or cooking in a soup in place of raw meat. This variety of kiełbasa's taste is similar to a white Thuringian sausage.
United States Edit
In Canada, varieties typical of Poland, Ukraine, and elsewhere are available in supermarkets, and more specific varieties can be found in specialty shops. This type of sausage is particularly associated with the Prairie Provinces, where the Slavic cultural presence is particularly strong. The world's largest display model of a Ukrainian sausage is a roadside attraction in Mundare, Alberta, the home of Stawnichy's Meat Processing.
- Main article: KolbászKolbász is the Hungarian word for sausage. Hungarian cuisine produces a vast number of types of sausages. The most common smoked Hungarian sausages are Gyulai Kolbász, Csabai Kolbász, Csemege Kolbász, Házi Kolbász, Cserkész Kolbász, lightly smoked, like Debreceni Kolbász (or Debrecener) and Lecsókolbász, a spicy sausage made specifically for serving as part of the dish Lecsó, a vegetable stew with peppers and tomatoes. Hungarian boiled sausages are called "Hurka", Liver Sausage, "Májas", and Blood Sausage, "Véres". The main ingredient is liver and rice, or blood and rice. Spices, pepper, and salt are added.
Czech Republic and Slovakia Edit
Klobása is the Czech and Slovak word for sausage.
In Ukraine "kovbasa" is properly pronounced [kowbɑˈsɑ], but in English is usually pronounced /ˈkʌbəsɑː/
Similar sausages are found in other Slavic nations as well, notably Russia (spelled "колбаса", i.e. "kolbasa"), the Czech Republic (spelled "klobása", or regionally "klobás"), Slovakia (spelled "klobása") and Slovenia (spelled "klobása"). In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia, this sausage is called "kobasica", while in Macedonia it's called "kolbas".
In Iran, the sausages are referred to as Kalbas (Ka'l-BUS) (Persian: کالباس).
- ↑ Barber, Katherine (Fall 2006). "Anyone for a Kubasa on a Calabrese?". Tabaret (University of Ottawa). http://www.tabaret.uottawa.ca/article_e_320.html. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
- ↑ The Canadian Oxford Dictionary has headwords for the Canadian usage kubasa, as well as the Albertan kubie and kubie burger, for kubasa dogs and burgers, respectively. These have been made popular by Stawnichy's Meat Processing of Mundare who have been making Ukrainian-style sausage for several decades and have a variety of 'Kubie'- derived patties and cutlettes. See also this article
- ↑ Polish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development - Kie?basa Lisiecka info (Polish) (Accessed 1/Nov/2010)
- ↑ EU Directory of PGI/PDO/TSG - Kie?basa Lisiecka profile (Accessed 1/Nov/2010)
- ↑ Marianski, Stanley; Maria?ski, Miroslaw; Gebarowski (2009). "4 - Polish Sausages Classification". Polish Sausages, Authentic Recipes and Instructions. Bookmagic. pp. 67–70. ISBN 9780982426722. http://books.google.com/books?id=DxgKb9oKuEAC&pg=PA67&dq=wiejska+Kielbasa#v=onepage&q=wiejska%20Kielbasa&f=false. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
- ↑ Strybel, Robert; Strybel, Maria (2005). Polish Heritage Cookery. Hippocrene Books. pp. 772–795. ISBN 9780781811248. http://books.google.com/books?id=UtA6-pyGJmMC&pg=PA772&dq=Sausage+making,+meat+curing+%26+smoking#v=onepage&q=Sausage%20making%2C%20meat%20curing%20%26%20smoking&f=false. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
- ↑ Strybel, Robert (2003). Polish Holiday Cookery. Hippocrene Books. pp. 115–117. ISBN 9780781809948. http://books.google.com/books?id=eXuO_-KMm2sC&pg=PA115&dq=Kielbasa+recipe#v=onepage&q=Kielbasa%20recipe&f=false. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
- ↑ Webb, Lois Sinaiko (2002). Multicultural Cookbook of Life-Cycle Celebrations. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 227–228. ISBN 9781573562904. http://books.google.com/books?id=CdLuaG_3LowC&pg=PA227&dq=Kielbasa+recipe#v=onepage&q=Kielbasa%20recipe&f=false. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
- ↑ "Mundare Sausage Index Page". Mundaresausage.com. http://www.mundaresausage.com/. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
- ↑ "Giant Sausage - Town of Mundare". Mundare.ca. http://www.mundare.ca/Giant-Sausage. Retrieved 2010-09-22.